are some of the most important components used in industrial and commercial applications. To make their operations more effective, they require washers on one or both ends to prevent slippage. The main types of washers are lock washers
and flat washers
Flat washers help to increase the surface area to help distribute the force being applied when tightening the fastener. A good example of a flat washer is the plain washer, commonly referred to as annulus/ ring. Others include the spherical washers, torque washers, and wall washers.
Unlike the flat washers, lock washer models are used to add tension during tightening. They help to prevent the nut from becoming loose. One example of a lock washer is the wave washer. This type if washer features a wave in an axial direction to provide spring pressure when compressed. Other examples include curved disc springs, split washers, and tab washers.